Barry Ace and Rosalie Favell
Barry Ace and Rosalie Favell will speak about their respective practices and themes emerging from the exhibition Every.Now.Then: Reframing Nationhood. It is an ambitious contemporary exhibition that critically explores three urgent questions through the eyes of some of the country’s best emerging and established artists: where has Canada come from, what it is now, and where is it going?
Barry Ace is a practicing visual artist and currently lives in Ottawa, Ontario. He is a band member of M’Chigeeng First Nation, Manitoulin Island, Ontario. His mixed media paintings and assemblage textile works explore various aspects of cultural continuity and the confluence of the historical and contemporary. Barry is the recipient of the KM Hunter Visual Artist Award for 2015, administered by the Ontario Arts Foundation.
Rosalie Favell is a photo-based artist who draws inspiration from her family history and Métis (Cree/English) heritage. She uses a variety of sources, from family albums to popular culture, to present a complex self-portrait of her experiences. Prestigious awards include the Chalmers Fellowship, Victor Martyn Lynch-Staunten Award, and the Karsh Award. She has worked with grassroots organizations in Winnipeg, Inuit educational groups in Ottawa, and Nepalese women’s groups in Katmandu.
Obstinate Objects: Native American Art as Seen by Julius Lips
In the high time of racist theory, the anthropologist Julius Lips launched his book The Savage Hits Back, or the White Man Through Native Eyes (1937), in which he advanced a kaleidoscopic view of representations of the European worldwide, thus inverting the colonial gaze onto the “Other.” The polemic title of the book expresses Lips’ intention to read the representations of the Westerner as ridicule of the exotic stranger and even as efficacious tools of protest against the hegemony of colonial power. This paper discusses Lips’ early anti-colonial approach by revisiting his speculative assumptions along selected examples from his collection.
Anna Brus is lecturer in Media Theory at the University of Siegen. Her research focuses on the historiography of art history and anthropology, art from the colonial period, and global contemporary art. Currently she is working as a guest curator for two exhibitions, “Colonial Encounters – Julius Lips’ Collection” at the RJM in Cologne (3/2018) and “Looking at Whites” at the HKW in Berlin (11/2018).
Bonnie Devine and Lisa Myers
Bonnie Devine and Lisa Myers in conversation
Bonnie Devine and Lisa Myers will speak about their respective practices and themes emerging from the exhibition Every.Now.Then: Reframing Nationhood, an ambitious contemporary exhibition that critically explores three urgent questions through the eyes of some of the country’s best emerging and established artists: where has Canada come from, what it is now, and where is it going?
Bonnie Devine is an installation artist, curator, writer, educator, and a member of Serpent River First Nation of Northern Ontario (Anishinaabe/Ojibwa). Through her art practice, writing, research, and teaching she seeks to further the recognition and development of contemporary Indigenous art and in particular, the story and pictorial tradition of the Anishinaabek. She is an associate professor at OCAD University and is the Founding Chair of OCAD U’s Indigenous Visual Culture Program.
Lisa Myers is an artist, independent curator, musician, and chef. Lisa’s Mother’s family is Anishnaabe and French from Shawanaga and Beausoleil First Nation in the Georgian Bay region, and her Dad is from English and Austrian ancestry who settled in southern Ontario. In 2011, Myers earned her Master of Fine Arts in Criticism and Curatorial practice from OCAD University, which focused on the use of food in Indigenous art practice.
Christopher T. Green
[House] Post Modern: Tlingit Responses to the ‘Modern’ Revival’
This paper discusses Tlingit artists Nathan Jackson and Jim Schoppert’s individual critiques of the Western modernist aesthetics defining the category of fine art, which Northwest Coast artists entered into in the 1960s and 70s. Jackson, the preeminent Tlingit revivalist, rejected the modernist principles being taught at the Institute of American Indian Art in Santa Fe, despite achieving initial acclaim for his experiments in printmaking that engaged such ideals. Two decades later, Jim Schoppert appropriated the formalist styles of the Western modern avant-garde and layered them into, and beneath an unmoored Tlingit visual language. Both examples engage with modernism’s legacy as a mutually accessible, rather than imposing and unidirectional, operation.
Christopher T. Green is a PhD candidate in Art History at the Graduate Center, CUNY. His writing has appeared in ARTMargins, Winterthur Portfolio, The Brooklyn Rail, Hyperallergic, and exhibition catalogues by the New Museum and the Fondation Fernet Branca. Green’s research focuses on modern and contemporary Native American art, spaces of display, and the pressures of the digital mode on culture and art making.
Candace S. Greene
Throughout the 19th century, Native people of the Upper Missouri River were deeply entangled with Euro-Americans. Arikara relationships shifted throughout that time, offering different routes to status and success. While visual and textual records of the Arikara come from European and American explorers, traders, and artists, the Arikara created their own visual record of these engagements. While much of the Arikara record documents intertribal conflicts, in some fascinating instances they turned their gaze directly upon Whites – powerful as both friends and enemies. This paper explores a small but important group of 19th century pictorial art from the Arikara and affiliated tribes as they engaged with Euro-Americans along the Missouri.
Candace S. Greene, PhD, is a museum anthropologist in the Smithsonian’s Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, and teaches in the Anthropology Department at George Washington University, D.C. Greene’s research focuses on Plains Indian drawings, and she has published extensively on the material and visual culture of Native North American societies, in particular the Kiowa and Cheyenne peoples of Oklahoma.
Revisiting Boas: Exploring Issues of the ‘Entangled Gaze’ on the Basis of His Field Notes
Anthropologist Franz Boas remains a problematic figure in light of critiques of the discipline of anthropology. Given his enormous amount of academic attention, why revisit Boas’ work? Surprisingly, until now Boas’ field notes (1883-1931) have resisted scholarly access and analysis as the bulk were written in an historic form of German shorthand no longer used. These notes were written in Native communities in Baffin Land, the Southwest and the Northwest Coast, Boas’ primary research sites. Reflecting four years of deciphering and transcribing Boas’ shorthand notes, this presentation will lend fresh insights into his lifelong attempts to grasp “Indigenous Others” and their manifold artistic expressions, which sometimes reversed the gaze onto Europeans.
Rainer Hatoum holds a PhD in Anthropology from Goethe University, Frankfurt. More recently, his work on deciphering the shorthand of Franz Boas (the “father” of anthropology), laid groundwork for his current research on Boas’ field notes. This project resulted in his current DFG-funded research and book project based at Goethe University, his association with the University of Western Ontario’s Franz Boas Papers, and the Bard Graduate Center’s The Distributed Text.
Embassy of Imagination (EOI)
Embassy of Imagination Artists’ Talk
EOI is an ongoing project led by Canadian art collective PA System (Alexa Hatanaka and Patrick Thompson), with youth in the arctic community of Kinngait (Cape Dorset, Nunavut). EOI bridges the gap for Kinngait youth to access workshops in artistic mediums and opportunities to develop their artistic practice. EOI encourages youth to achieve self-empowerment through creating collaborative projects in their community and public art projects that insert Inuit youth voices in Southern Canadian city centres.
Jisgang Nika Collison, and Kathryn Bunn-Marcuse
Gud Gii AanaaGung: Look at One Another
From the 18th century onwards, Northwest Coast artists responded to Euro-American images and forms, transformed them into their own creations, imbued them with meanings, and then sent them back out into the world. These artists documented their observations using voice and clever hands, often in life-like sculptures of Europeans and their exotic possessions. Some of these forms and motifs, often glossed as “Euro-American,” became fully integrated parts of Indigenous expression, reflecting complicated relationships with Euro-American settlers, colonial administrators, and visitors during a period of fundamental changes in social practices and cultural expressions. This drastic departure from “traditional” form may have been required for subject matter too foreign and potentially destructive to be captured with an art form derived from and for an Indigenous way of life. This artwork appealed to audiences both within and outside of First Nations communities and was created for a variety of uses – economic, ceremonial, and expressive.
Jisgang Nika Collison, belongs to the Ts’aahl clan of the Haida Nation. Specializing in historic and contemporary Haida art and culture, she has served as curator of the Haida Gwaii Museum for almost 20 years. Jisgang works with her Nation on a global scale as senior negotiator for Haida repatriation initiatives, and to build meaningful reparations and relationships between the Haida, museums, other institutions, and the public.
Kathryn Bunn-Marcuse, PhD, is the curator of Northwest Native art and director of the Bill Holm Center for the Study of Northwest Native Art at the Burke Museum, and assistant professor of art history at the University of Washington. Her publications focus on the indigenization of European-American imagery, 19th century Northwest Coast jewelry and other body adornment, and the filmic history of the Kwakwaka’wakw.
Jan Kahehti:io Longboat, Elder
Jan Kahehti:io Longboat, Turtle Clan of the Mohawk Nation, is an Elder, educator, writer, herbalist, cultural advocate, and visionary, having dedicated her life to the dissemination and learning of Indigenous language and culture. Elder Longboat ran a ten-year program called Idawadadi, which won the Aboriginal Healing Foundation’s best practices award and an outgrowth project entitled Dotah’s House to assist Indigenous women survivors to heal from the abuse of Residential Schools while strengthening their communities through cultural knowledge.
Jonathan C.H. King
Beyond the Glazing: Aboriginal Artists Behind Glass No More
In recent years, artists, especially in the north and on the west coast, have taken control not merely of narrative in art practice, but of traditional continuity in politics and self-presentation. In an important sense cased exhibitions, framed art works, and glazed pictures have ceased to act as the sole center of innovation in art production. The work of filmmaker Zak Kunnuk (b. 1957) from Igloolik, multi-media artist Michael Nicoll Yahgulanaas (b. 1954) from Masset, and contemporary artists of Kinngait will be compared.
J.C.H. King’s Blood and Land. The Story of Native North America will come out in paperback in August 2017. His current project is Inuit Invention: 200 Years of Art and Materiality 1740-1940. From 1975-2005 King was first curator of Native North America at the British Museum, then Keeper of Africa, Oceania and the Americas/Anthropology from 2005-2012. Currently, King is Von Hȕgel Fellow, Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge, UK.
Justine Kohleal and Tak Pham
Virtual Indigenous Platform for Global Indigenous Initiatives OCAD University’s Indigenous Visual Culture Research Centre is embarking on the creation of a research and knowledge exchange that will link with local, national, and international universities, museums, galleries, and Indigenous communities. With particular focus on Indigenous views of the ‘other,’ the initiatives of the INVC/RC hopes to foster and nurture the global Indigenous art community to produce major online exhibitions, publications and interventions that encourages scholarly, curatorial, and public debate.
Justine Kohleal is an independent curator and art critic based in Edmonton and Toronto. Her curatorial interests lie at the intersection of space, the body/senses and boredom within the arts and curatorial practice. She utilizes feminist Marxist and phenomenological methodologies to explore how boredom and the senses can be harnessed to suggest a reconsideration of institutional space. She holds an MFA in Criticism and Curatorial Practice from OCAD University.
Tak Pham is a curator of architecture, contemporary and media art, and an art critic based in Toronto. His curatorial approach concerns with spatial experience of the exhibition architecture. He has curated exhibitions and projects at OCAD University, Art Toronto 2015, Y+ Contemporary, Xpace Cultural Centre, and Nuit Blanche 2017. Pham is currently a Research Assistant at OCAD University’s Indigenous Visual Culture Research Centre.
Buffalo Bill’s ‘Indians’ Gaze Back: Europe and Europeans in Arthur Amiotte’s Collages
The paper will focus on collages by Lakota artist Arthur Amiotte, who connects his family history – including that of his Austrian great-grandmother – with the general history of the Lakotas of the early reservation period. His “Buffalo Bill” collages offer a wide variety of “entangled gaze.” They show Native American participants in “Buffalo Bill’s Wild West” show gazing at Europeans and Europe, while the show’s European audiences return the exoticizing gaze. Additionally, the paper will explore a number of Amiotte’s other collages, which gaze at Europeans or Euro-Americans to explain reservation life of that time in relation the larger world.
Markus Lindner, PhD, is a cultural anthropologist at Goethe University, Frankfurt. He specializes in Lakota culture and history and has been working on Native American self-representation, combining the topics of tourism, museums, and contemporary art(ists). Lindner worked at the Weltkulturen Museum Frankfurt, was a guest curator at the Akta Lakota Museum in Chamberlain, South Dakota, and collaborated with Arthur Amiotte on the exhibition “Ma Lakota! Native American Childhood” in Frankfurt (2006).
Gerald McMaster and Kaitlin McCormick
Gerald McMaster, PhD, Canada Research Chair, Indigenous Visual Culture and Curatorial Practice, OCAD University. For the past decade, McMaster has been collecting relevant materials in the world’s museums, amassing the evidence needed to demonstrate that the character of the creative strategies with which Indigenous peoples documented Europeans amounts to a “reverse gaze.” Over the years, his conveyance of Indigenous critical voices as they have been expressed through art and visual culture has contributed to the intersecting fields of history, Indigenous studies, anthropology, and art history.
Kaitlin McCormick’s doctoral research investigated early Scottish museum collections of Haida argillite carving. She found that historical argillite carvings that depict nineteenth century Euro-American sailors, ships, fur traders and material culture effectively “reverse the European gaze,” providing compelling counter-perspectives to dominant Euro-American narratives of the history of intercultural interactions on the Northwest Coast. Currently a postdoctoral Research Associate in Anthropology and Museum Studies at Brown University, she continues to research Indigenous and Euro-American views of each other in the collections of Brown’s Haffenreffer Museum.
The Four Continents
Kent Monkman’s “The Four Continents” reflects the “painted voyage” from the Renaissance to Romanticism – a visual journey upon which Europeans projected their views of the world onto other continents. A revisionist art history, Monkman’s inspiration is Giambattista Tiepolo’s major work, “Four Continents” (1752). The thematic breakdown of Tiepolo’s paintings refers to a division of the world into Europe, Asia, America and Africa, each personified by a female archetype. In Monkman’s version the gender variant alter ego, an anachronous and New World Miss Chief Eagle Testickle, will embody the displacement, flux, and rampant consumerism that more accurately characterizes the complex and fluid histories of our global reality.
Kent Monkman is a leading Canadian artist of Cree ancestry who works with a variety of mediums, including painting, film/video, performance, and installation. He has had solo exhibitions at numerous Canadian museums, and has participated in various international group exhibitions. Monkman’s award-winning short film and video works have been screened at national and international festivals, and his work is represented in public and private collections in North America and Europe.
Wanda Nanibush is the inaugural Curator, Indigenous Art at the Art Gallery of Ontario. Nanibush is an Anishinaabe-kwe curator, image and word warrior, and community organizer from Beausoleil First Nation. Her curatorial credits include the exhibitions Rita Letendre: Fire & Light (AGO), Toronto: Tributes + Tributaries, 1971-1989 (AGO), Sovereign Acts II (Leonard & Bina Ellen Art Gallery), and the award winning KWE: The work of Rebecca Belmore (Justina M. Barnicke Gallery) among many others.
German Cultural Appropriations of Indigeneity: ‘Indianer,’ Winnetou, and Indigenous Interventions
“German Cultural Appropriations of Indigeneity: ‘Indianer,’ Winnetou, and Indigenous Interventions” Kent Monkman challenges the German image of the stoic Indian through a variety of media. His art, film, performance and installation pieces adjust German portrayals of North American Indigenous life to include Indigenous voices and perspectives. Monkman’s alter ego Miss Chief Eagle Testickle recurs in his work, exposing and embracing Indigenous stereotypes in order to distance them from their German genealogy and revise Indigenous identities. This paper explores how Monkman engages with and challenges (German) colonial pasts and Euro-American tropes of the “Indian.” In addressing the cultural appropriation of the Indigenous image and exposing contemporary Indigenous struggles, Monkman/Miss Chief challenge the “Indianer” stereotype, exemplifying native survivance (Vizenor 1999).
Nicole Perry, PhD, is a lecturer in German at the University of Auckland, and is a Lise Meitner Fellow (2013-17), funded by the Austrian Scientific Fund for her project “Performing Germanness: Reclaiming Aboriginality.” Her research focuses primarily on the German image of America and Native Americans from 1800-present. Her current project reverses the gaze and examines how Indigenous artists from North America reclaim and re-appropriate the German “Indianer” image in a postcolonial context.
Nii O. Quarcoopome
Representation/Re-Presentation: Five Centuries of Changing African Depictions of the European ‘Other’
From literal depictions chronicling first encounters with Europeans to 20th century images countering European colonial domination, African portrayals of the White “Other” have never been static. African visual representations document a spectrum of perceptions and attitudes exhibited toward Europeans at different moments in time. Careful readings of such images reveal that for many Africans, the European inspired competing metaphors of goodness and evil, influenced by situational contexts. Where and when it was made, who owned it, and the relationship that engendered its creation shaped an image’s interpretation. Using specific examples, this paper offers an historical review of this rich and complex visual record, and aims to illustrate shifting and conflicted African emotional responses to the European presence.
Nii O. Quarcoopome is the Ghanaian-born head of the Detroit Institute of Art’s department of Africa, Oceania, and Indigenous Americas. Quarcoopome holds a PhD in Art History from UCLA. In 2010, he organized the award-winning exhibition Through African Eyes: The European in African Art, 1500 to Present, which explored 500 years of African-European interactions, from diverse African artistic perspectives.
Garry Sault, Elder
Garry Sault is an Anishinaabe Elder from Mississauga’s New Credit Nation. His people signed over 20 pre-Confederation treaties with the Crown, which now covers most of southern Ontario’s Golden Horseshoe. A veteran who served in the US Navy, Elder Sault resides on the New Credit First Nation with his wife of 40 years and enjoys spending quality time with his grandchildren. He is a storyteller who has welcomed chiefs, premiers, environmentalists, and many more to the traditional territory of the Mississaugas of the New Credit.
Pocahontas Looks Back
Placing side by side Simon de Passe’s 1616 Matoaka engraving, the 1889 Pocahontas by Richard Norris Brooke, Jimmie Durham’s 1988-92 installations, Shelley Niro’s 2003 short The Shirt, as well as Kent Monkman’s landscape paintings and Miss Chief Eagle Testickle performances, this paper considers how contemporary artists have responded to the European and American tradition of representing Indigenous people, and especially women, in portraiture. By staging various versions of failed exchanges of recognition transacted across art about or by Indigenous subjects, these works expose the aesthetic and ideological costs of representing the Other, whether Settler or Indigenous.
Monika Siebert, PhD, is an associate professor of English and American Studies at the University of Richmond, Virginia. She is the author of Indians Playing Indian: Multiculturalism and Contemporary Indigenous Art in North America (2015) and essays on Indigenous literature and cinema in American Literature, Public Culture, and Mississippi Quarterly. She is at work on a book about the contemporary cultural contests over Virginia colonial heritage.
Rick W. Hill Sr.
Two Row Wampum
How the people from the ship and the people from the canoe viewed each other as told through the oral history of the Two Row Wampum. How Indigenous artists were more open and less biased that the western art that followed, using Iroquois hair combs and western art to illustrate. Another wampum belt titled “First Sighting of the People with Pale Faces” as a different metaphor from the Two Row and which dates to the arrival of Cartier in the early 16th century.
Rick W. Hill Sr., Tuscarora, is an artist, photographer, and scholar. The former project coordinator for Deyohahá:ge: Indigenous Knowledge centre, he is currently curriculum development specialist for the Bundled Arrows Initiative. The Cayuga name for the Indigenous Knowledge Centre is Deyohahá: ge:, meaning Two Roads. The name embraces the concept of two streams of knowledge – Indigenous and Western – coming together in order to advance human understanding of the world around us.
Drew Hayden Taylor
Born on the Curve Lake First Nation, Ontario, Drew Hayden Taylor is a playwright, journalist/columnist, short-story writer, novelist, and television scriptwriter. He has performed stand-up comedy at the Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C., and was Artistic Director of Canada’s premiere Native theatre company, Native Earth Performing Arts in Toronto. About his background, Taylor says: “I plan to start my own nation. Because I am half Ojibway, half Caucasian, we will be called the ‘Occasions.’ And of course, since I’m founding the new nation, I will be a special occasion.”
In addition to his writing and Artistic Directorship at Native Earth Performing Arts, Taylor has lectured and was Member of the Board at the Centre for Indigenous Theatre in Toronto. He co-created the series Mixed Blessings for APTN in 2007, and has been a writer for The Beachcombers, Street Legal, and North of 60.
Taylor is the author of 30 books, most notably the four-volume series, You Don’t Look Like One, which educates and informs the world about issues that reflect, celebrate, and interfere in the lives of Canada’s First Nations. For the Entangled Gaze, Taylor will, fittingly, address the profound and entangled relationships between Indigenous and Euro-Canadians through his humour.
When traveling through tribal lands, an awareness of protocol provides an essential introduction upon which relationships are built. I believe that the initial protocol enacted by Indigenous researchers, historians, and artists effects reciprocity, whereas western-based researchers, historians, and artists unaware of protocol as establishing relationships, tend to revert to utilizing research as a buttress of colonization. A selection of unfortunate events such as the canonization of Junipero Serra (2015) and Sam Durant’s “Scaffold,” 2012, are examples to be questioned. The second half of the presentation will be the visual response of the communities effected.
Hulleah Tsinhnahjinnie’s artwork is fuelled by the inherent power of the photograph to validate truth, fact and history. Tsinhnahjinnie documents her views with self-experienced Indigenous authority, exploring her own life, politics, and community, while transgressing geographically and ideologically imposed boundaries in order to consider her work in a global Indigenous context. She makes Walter Benjamin’s fears of mass dissemination realized, with the ability to bring the Indigenous world together across continents, maintaining full sovereignty of an enduring and persevering Native philosophy.
Krista Ulujuk Zawadski
Qaujimanira: Inuit Art as Autoethnography
Inuit art has a history of representing Inuit ways of life, beliefs and stories through an autoethnographic lens. An examination of the early history of Inuit art and the representation of Inuit in ethnographies, including film and photography, reveals the early Inuit gaze seldom represented “others” and was dominated by Inuit representations of ourselves. Utilizing the Government of Nunavut’s Fine Art Collection as a catalyst to examine Inuit representation of ourselves and others, I seek to engage with the concept of an autoethnographic gaze in Inuit art.
Krista Ulujuk Zawadski was raised in Igluligaarjuk (Chesterfield Inlet) and currently lives in Rankin Inlet, Nunavut. Zawadski completed a Master’s Degree in Anthropology at the University of British Columbia in 2016, and has focused her education and career in the heritage sector in Nunavut and in the field of museology. Zawadski is currently the Curator of Inuit Art for the Department of Culture and Heritage, Government of Nunavut.